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"I'd put my money on the Sun and Solar Energy, what a source of Power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that." -Thomas Edison

"Solar energy is a clean alternative energy source. It's clear, given the current energy crisis, that we need to embrace new sources of renewable energy that are good for our planet. I believe very strongly in using technology to provide affordable options that all consumers can put into practice." -Yang Yang UCLA Engineering Professor

"We were delighted to have worked with Microsoft on its electric solar system. Microsoft is effectively lowering operating costs, reducing purchases of expensive peak electricity, and improving the health and quality of life in California through its Silicon Valley Campus solar power program." -Dan Shuga President of PowerLight

 

 

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STAND ALONE POWER SYSTEM
ORANGE COUNTY

Schematics of a hybrid system

A stand-alone power system (SAPS or SPS), also known as remote area power supply (RAPS), is an off-the-grid electricity system for locations that are not fitted with an electricity distribution system. Typical SAPS include one or more methods of electricity generation, energy storage, and regulation.

Electricity is typically generated by one or more of the following methods:

Storage is typically implemented as a battery bank, but other solutions exist including fuel cells. Power drawn directly from the battery will be direct current extra low voltage (DC ELV), and this is used especially for lighting as well as for DC appliances. An inverter is used to generate AC low voltage, which more typical appliances can be used with.

A typical stand-alone solar PV system at a sewage treatment plant in Santuari de Lluc, Spain

Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are independent of the utility grid and may use solar panels only or may be used in conjunction with a diesel generator, a wind turbine or batteries.

Types

The two types of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are direct-coupled system without batteries and stand alone system with batteries.

Direct-coupled system

The basic model of a direct coupled system consists of a solar panel connected directly to a dc load. As there are no battery banks in this setup, energy is not stored and hence it is capable of powering common appliances like fans, pumps etc. only during the day. MPPTs are generally used to efficiently utilize the Sun's energy especially for electrical loads like positive-displacement water pumps. Impedance matching is also considered as a design criterion in direct-coupled systems.

Stand alone system with batteries

Schematic of a stand-alone PV system with battery and charger

In stand-alone photovoltaic power systems, the electrical energy produced by the photovoltaic panels cannot always be used directly. As the demand from the load does not always equal the solar panel capacity, battery banks are generally used. The primary functions of a storage battery in a stand-alone PV system are:

  • Energy Storage Capacity and Autonomy: To store energy when there is an excess is available and to provide it when required.
  • Voltage and Current Stabilization: To provide stable current and voltage by eradicating transients.
  • Supply Surge Currents: to provide surge currents to loads like motors when required.

Hybrid system

Solar panels at an ecotourism resort (British Columbia, Canada).

The hybrid power plant is a complete electrical power supply system that can be easily configured to meet a broad range of remote power needs. There are three basic elements to the system - the power source, the battery, and the power management center. Sources for hybrid power include wind turbines, diesel engine generators, and solar PV systems. The battery allows autonomous operation by compensating for the difference between power production and use. The power management center regulates power production from each of the sources, controls power use by classifying loads, and protects the battery from service extremes.

System monitoring

Monitoring photovoltaic systems can provide useful information about their operation and what should be done to improve performance, but if the data are not reported properly, the effort is wasted. To be helpful, a monitoring report must provide information on the relevant aspects of the operation in terms that are easily understood by a third party. Appropriate performance parameters need to be selected, and their values consistently updated with each new issue of the report. In some cases it may be beneficial to monitor the performance of individual components in order to refine and improve system performance, or be alerted to loss of performance in time for preventative action. For example, monitoring battery charge/discharge profiles will signal when replacement is due before downtime from system failure is experienced.

IEC standard 61724

IEC has provided a set of monitoring standards called the "Standard for Photovoltaic system performance monitoring" (IEC 61724). It focusses on the photovoltaic system's electrical performance and it does not address hybrids or prescribe a method for ensuring that performance assessments are equitable.

Performance assessment

Performance assessment involves:

  • Data collection, which is a straightforward process of measuring parameters.
  • Evaluation of that data in a manner that provides useful information.
  • Dissemination of useful information to the end user.

Load related problems

The wide range of load related problems identified are classified into the following types:

  • Wrong selection: Some loads cannot be used with stand-alone PV systems.
  • House wiring: Inadequate or low quality wiring and protection devices can affect the system's response.
  • Low efficiency: Low efficiency loads may increase energy consumption.
  • Stand-by loads: Stand-by mode of some loads waste energy.
  • Start-up: High current drawn by some loads during start-up Current spikes during the start-up can overload the system temporarily.
  • Reactive power: The circulating current can differ from the current consumed when capacitive or inductive loads are used.
  • Harmonic distortion: Non-linear loads may create distortion of the inverter waveform.
  • Mismatch between load and inverter size: When a higher rated inverter is used for a lower capacity load, overall efficiency is reduced.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems". renewable-energy-sources.com. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  2. ^ "A STAND-ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM, CASE STUDY: A RESIDENCE IN GAZA" (PDF). trisanita.org. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  3. ^ "Stand Alone PV Systems". eai.in. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  4. ^ "SBatteries and Charge Control in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems-Fundamentals and Application" (PDF). localenergy.org. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  5. ^ a b "Guidelines for Monitoring Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems: Methodology and Equipment". iea-pvps.org. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  6. ^ "Photovoltaic system performance monitoring Guidelines for measurement, data exchange and analysis". IEC standard 61724, Geneva: 37. 1998.  line feed character in |journal= at position 5 (help);
  7. ^ "Use of appliances in Stand-Alone PV Power supply systems: problems and solutions". iea-pvps.org. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 

External links


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ABOUT ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA

Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov

CITIES OF ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA:

City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

 

 

"An honest answer is the sign of true friendship."

We receive many customers from across the world including people from the following cities:

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea, 92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629, East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610, Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677, Laguna Woods, 92637, Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861,Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

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