PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SOLAR COLLECTOR ORANGE COUNTY, ORANGE COUNTY PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SOLAR COLLECTOR, PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SOLAR COLLECTOR SOLAR POWER ORANGE COUNTY CA, FREE SOLAR POWER, Residential Solar Power, Commercial Solar Power, Solar Power Systems, Mission Viejo, Orange County, Solar Power Systems Residential, Solar Energy, Free Solar Energy, Solar Power Systems For Homes,


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"I'd put my money on the Sun and Solar Energy, what a source of Power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that." -Thomas Edison

"Solar energy is a clean alternative energy source. It's clear, given the current energy crisis, that we need to embrace new sources of renewable energy that are good for our planet. I believe very strongly in using technology to provide affordable options that all consumers can put into practice." -Yang Yang UCLA Engineering Professor

"We were delighted to have worked with Microsoft on its electric solar system. Microsoft is effectively lowering operating costs, reducing purchases of expensive peak electricity, and improving the health and quality of life in California through its Silicon Valley Campus solar power program." -Dan Shuga President of PowerLight

 

 

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PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SOLAR COLLECTOR

Schematic of a hybrid (PVT) solar collector:
1 - Anti-reflective glass
2 - EVA-encapsulant
3 - Solar PV cells
4 - EVA-encapsulant
5 - Backsheet (PVF)
6 - Heat exchanger (copper)
7 - Insulation (polyurethane)

Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors, sometimes known as hybrid PV/T systems or PVT, are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy. These systems combine a solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal collector, which captures the remaining energy and removes waste heat from the PV module. The capture of both electricity and heat allow these devices to have higher exergy and thus be more overall energy efficient than solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal alone. A significant amount of research has gone into developing PVT technology since the 1970s.

Photovoltaic cells suffer from a drop in efficiency with the rise in temperature due to increased resistance. Such systems can be engineered to carry heat away from the PV cells thereby cooling the cells and thus improving their efficiency by lowering resistance. Although this is an effective method, it causes the thermal component to under-perform compared to a solar thermal collector. Recent research showed that photovoltaic materials with low temperature coefficients such as amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) PV allow the PVT to be operated at high temperatures, creating a more symbiotic PVT system. This advantage can be tuned by controlling the dispatch strategy of thermal annealing cycles in any region of the world.

System types

A number of PV/T collectors in different categories are commercially available and can be divided into the following categories:

  • PV/T liquid collector
  • PV/T air collector
  • PV/Ta Liquid and air collector
  • PV/T concentrator (CPVT)

PV/T liquid collector

The basic water-cooled design uses conductive-metal piping or plates attached to the back of a PV module. The fluid flow arrangement through the cooling element will determine which systems the panels are most suited to.

In a standard fluid based system, a working fluid, typically water, glycol or mineral oil is then piped through these pipes or plate chillers. The heat from the PV cells is conducted through the metal and absorbed by the working fluid (presuming that the working fluid is cooler than the operating temperature of the cells). In closed-loop systems this heat is either exhausted (to cool it), or transferred at a heat exchanger, where it flows to its application. In open-loop systems, this heat is used, or exhausted before the fluid returns to the PV cells. It is also possible to disperse nanoparticles in the liquid to create a liquid filter for PV/T applications. The basic advantage of this type of split configuration is that the thermal collector and the photovoltaic collector can operate at different temperatures.

PV/T concentrator (CPVT)

A concentrator system has the advantage to reduce the amount of photovoltaic (PV) cells needed, such that somewhat more expensive and efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells can be used that will maximize the ratio of produced high-value electrical power versus lower-value thermal power. A major limitation of high-concentrator (i.e. HCPV and HCPVT) systems is that they maintain their advantage over conventional c-Si/mc-Si collectors only in regions that remain consistently free of atmospheric aerosol contaminants (e.g. light clouds, smog, etc.). Concentrator system performance is especially degraded because 1) radiation is reflected and scattered outside of the small (often less than 1°-2°) acceptance angle of the collection optics, and 2) absorption of specific components of the solar spectrum causes one or more series junctions within the MJ cells to underperfom.

Concentrator systems also require reliable control systems to accurately track the sun and to protect the PV cells from damaging over-temperature conditions. Under ideal conditions, about 75% of the suns power directly incident upon such systems can be gathered as electricity and heat. For more details, see the discussion of CPVT within the article for concentrated photovoltaics.

See also

References

  1. ^ M.J.M. Pathak, P.G. Sanders, J. M. Pearce, Optimizing limited solar roof access by exergy analysis of solar thermal, photovoltaic, and hybrid photovoltaic thermal systems. In: Applied Energy, 120, pp. 115-124 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.01.041
  2. ^ Ahmad Mojiri, Robert A. Taylor, Elizabeth Thomsen, Gary Rosengarten, Spectral beam splitting for efficient conversion of solar energy — A review. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 28, December 2013, Pages 654–663, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.026
  3. ^ Chow, T. T. (2010). "A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology". Applied Energy 87 (2): 365–379. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.06.037. 
  4. ^ S.A. Kalogirou, Y. Tripanagnostopoulos (30 January 2006). These systems are most often used for domestic hot water (DHW) and electricity production
  5. ^ Pathak, M.J.M.; Pearce, J.M.; Harrison, S.J. (2012). "Effects on amorphous silicon photovoltaic performance from high-temperature annealing pulses in photovoltaic thermal hybrid devices". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 100: 199–203. arXiv:1203.1216. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2012.01.015. 
  6. ^ Pathak, M.J.M; Girotra, K.; Harrison, S.J.; Pearce, J.M. (2012). "The Effect of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Device Operating Conditions on Intrinsic Layer Thickness Optimization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells". Solar Energy 86: 2673–2677. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2012.06.002. 
  7. ^ Rozario, J.; Vora, A.H.; Debnath, S.K.; Pathak, M.J.M.; Pearce, J.M. (2014). "The effects of dispatch strategy on electrical performance of amorphous silicon-based solar photovoltaic-thermal systems". Renewable Energy 68: 459–465. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2014.02.029. 
  8. ^ Rozario, Joseph; Pearce, Joshua M. (2015). "Optimization of annealing cycles for electric output in outdoor conditions for amorphous silicon photovoltaic–thermal systems". Applied Energy 148: 134–141. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.073. 
  9. ^ Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, M. Souliotis, R. Battisti, A. Corrado "APPLICATION ASPECTS OF HYBRID PV/T SOLAR SYSTEMS" http://www.ecn.nl/fileadmin/ecn/units/egon/pvt/pdf/ises03_lca.pdf
  10. ^ Taylor, R.A.; Otanicar, T.; Rosengarten, G. (2012). "Nanofluid-based optical filter optimization for PV/T systems". Light: Science & Applications 1: e34. doi:10.1038/lsa.2012.34. 
  11. ^ Taylor, R.A.; Otanicar, T; Herukerrupu, Y; Bremond, F; Rosengarten, G; Hawkes, E; Jiang, X.; Coulombe, S (2013). "Feasibility of nanofluid-based optical filters". Applied Optics 52 (7): 1413–1422. doi:10.1364/AO.52.001413. PMID 23458793. 
  12. ^ Otanicar, T.P.; Taylor, R. A.; Telang, C. (2013). "Photovoltaic/thermal system performance utilizing thin film and nanoparticle dispersion based optical filters". Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 5: 033124. doi:10.1063/1.4811095. 
  13. ^ "Analysis of the spectral variations on the performance of high concentrator photovoltaic modules operating under different real climate conditions, E.F. Fernandez et.al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 2014" (PDF). 

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ABOUT ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA

Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov

CITIES OF ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA:

City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

 

 

"An honest answer is the sign of true friendship."

We receive many customers from across the world including people from the following cities:

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea, 92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629, East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610, Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677, Laguna Woods, 92637, Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861,Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

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PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SOLAR COLLECTOR ORANGE COUNTY CA
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