CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS ORANGE COUNTY, ORANGE COUNTY CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS, CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS SOLAR POWER ORANGE COUNTY CA, FREE SOLAR POWER, Residential Solar Power, Commercial Solar Power, Solar Power Systems, Mission Viejo, Orange County, Solar Power Systems Residential, Solar Energy, Free Solar Energy, Solar Power Systems For Homes,


CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
For SOLAR POWER IN ORANGE COUNTY - Call Today (949) 488-3207
FREE Solar Power For Orange County California!
, Zero Down, Free Estimate
"The solar market is projected to grow 35 percent a year for the next three to five years." -Walter Nasdeo
Residential Solar Energy, Commercial Solar Energy, Free Solar Energy (Zero Down), Reduce Your Electric Bills With Solar Power, Mico-Inverters
 

Solar Power
Orange County
CA
.com


Zero Down Solar Made Easy!

BRIAN
POWERS
CONSTRUCTION

& SOLAR POWER

23632 Via Fabricante, Suite F
Mission Viejo, CA 92691


CALL US TODAY
(949) 488-3207

To Email Us: "Click Here"

Email:

READ OUR REVIEWS

Read About us On:
GOOGLE
YAHOO
INCREDELICIOUS



NOTE: The information and notices contained on this website are intended as general research and information and are expressly not intended, and should not be regarded, as medical, financial or legal advice. The articles are from free sources.


Awarded

Best Value in SOLAR POWER

Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCA
BusinessDirectory.com
 
 

"I'd put my money on the Sun and Solar Energy, what a source of Power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that." -Thomas Edison

"Solar energy is a clean alternative energy source. It's clear, given the current energy crisis, that we need to embrace new sources of renewable energy that are good for our planet. I believe very strongly in using technology to provide affordable options that all consumers can put into practice." -Yang Yang UCLA Engineering Professor

"We were delighted to have worked with Microsoft on its electric solar system. Microsoft is effectively lowering operating costs, reducing purchases of expensive peak electricity, and improving the health and quality of life in California through its Silicon Valley Campus solar power program." -Dan Shuga President of PowerLight

 

 

.
 

Welcome To
Solar Power Orange County
GET YOUR FREE ESTIMATE TODAY!


CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
ORANGE COUNTY

This Amonix system consists of thousands of small lenses, each focusing sunlight to ~500X higher intensity onto a tiny, high-efficiency multi-junction solar cell. A Tesla Roadster is parked beneath for scale.
Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) modules on dual axis solar trackers in Golmud, China

Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) is a photovoltaic technology that generates electricity from sunlight. Contrary to conventional photovoltaic systems, it uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, multi-junction (MJ) solar cells. In addition, CPV systems often use solar trackers and sometimes a cooling system to further increase their efficiency.:30 Ongoing research and development is rapidly improving their competitiveness in the utility-scale segment and in areas of high insolation. This sort of solar technology can be thus used in smaller areas.

Systems using high concentrator photovoltaics (HCPV) especially have the potential to become competitive in the near future. They possess the highest efficiency of all existing PV technologies, and a smaller photovoltaic array also reduces the balance of system costs. Currently, CPV is not used in the PV rooftop segment and is far less common than conventional PV systems. For regions with a high annual direct normal irradiance of 2000 kilowatt-hour (kWh) per square meter or more, the levelized cost of electricity is in the range of $0.08–$0.15 per kWh and installation cost for a 10-megawatt CPV power plant was identified to lie between €1.40–€2.20 (~$1.50-$2.30) per watt-peak (Wp).:12

In 2013 CPV installations accounted for only 0.1%, or 50 megawatts (MW), of the annual global PV market of nearly 39,000 MW.:10:21 However, by the end of 2014, cumulative installations already amounted to 330 MW.:5 Commercial HCPV systems reached efficiencies of up to 42% with concentration levels above 400,:26 and the International Energy Agency sees potential to increase the efficiency of this technology to 50% by the mid-2020s.:28 As of December 2014, the best lab cell efficiency for concentrator MJ-cells reached 46% (four or more junctions). Most CPV installations are located in China, the United States, South Africa, Italy and Spain.:12

HCPV directly competes with concentrated solar power (CSP) as both technologies are suited best for areas with high direct normal irradiance, which are also known as the Sun Belt region in the United States and the Golden Banana in Southern Europe.:26 CPV and CSP are often confused with one another, despite being intrinsically different technologies from the start: CPV uses the photovoltaic effect to directly generate electricity from sunlight, while CSP – often called concentrated solar thermal – uses the heat from the sun's radiation in order to make steam to drive a turbine, that then produces electricity using a generator. Currently, CSP is more common than CPV.

History

Research into concentrator photovoltaics has taken place since the 1970s. Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico was the site for most of the early work, with the first modern photovoltaic concentrating system produced there late in the decade. Their first system was a linear-trough concentrator system that used a point focus acrylic Fresnel lens focusing on water-cooled silicon cells and two axis tracking.[citation needed] Ramón Areces' system, also developed in the late 1970s, used hybrid silicone-glass Fresnel lenses, while cooling of silicon cells was achieved with a passive heat sink.[citation needed]

Challenges

CPV systems operate most efficiently in concentrated sunlight, as long as the solar cell is kept cool through use of heat sinks. Diffuse light, which occurs in cloudy and overcast conditions, cannot be concentrated. To reach their maximum efficiency, CPV systems must be located in areas that receive plentiful direct sunlight.

The design of photovoltaic concentrators introduces a very specific optical design problem, with features that makes it different from any other optical design. It has to be efficient, suitable for mass production, capable of high concentration, insensitive to manufacturing and mounting inaccuracies, and capable of providing uniform illumination of the cell. All these reasons make nonimaging optics the most suitable for CPV.

CPV Strengths CPV Weaknesses
High efficiencies for direct-normal irradiance HCPV cannot utilize diffuse radiation. LCPV can only utilize a fraction of diffuse radiation
Low temperature coefficients Tracking with sufficient accuracy and reliability is required
No cooling water required for passively cooled systems May require frequent cleaning to mitigate soiling losses, depending on the site
Additional use of waste heat possible for systems with active cooling possible (e.g.large mirror systems) Limited market – can only be used in regions with high DNI, cannot be easily installed on rooftops
Modular – kW to GW scale Strong cost decrease of competing technologies for electricity production
Increased and stable energy production throughout the day due to tracking Bankability and perception issues
Very low energy payback time New generation technologies, without a history of production (thus increased risk)
Potential double use of land e.g. for agriculture, low environmental impact Optical losses
High potential for cost reduction Lack of technology standardization
Opportunities for local manufacturing
Smaller cell sizes could prevent large fluctuations in module price due to variations in semiconductor prices
Greater potential for efficiency increase in the future compared to single-junction flat plate systems could lead to greater improvements in land area use, BOS costs, and BOP costs
Source: Current Status of CPV report, January 2015.:8 Table 2: Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of CPV.

Efficiency

Main article: Solar cell efficiency
Reported records of solar cell efficiency since 1975. As of December 2014, best lab cell efficiency reached 46% (for ? multi-junction concentrator, 4+ junctions).

All CPV systems have a concentrating optic and a solar cell. Except for very low concentrations, active solar tracking is also necessary. Low concentration systems often have a simple booster reflector, which can increase solar electric output by over 30% from that of non-concentrator PV systems. Experimental results from such LCPV systems in Canada resulted in energy gains over 40% for prismatic glass and 45% for traditional crystalline silicon PV modules.

Semiconductor properties allow solar cells to operate more efficiently in concentrated light, as long as the cell Junction temperature is kept cool by suitable heat sinks. Efficiency of multi-junction photovoltaic cells developed in research is upward of 44% today, with the potential to approach 50% in the coming years.

Also crucial to the efficiency (and cost) of a CPV system is the concentrating optic since it collects and concentrates sunlight onto the solar cell. For a given concentration, nonimaging optics combine the widest possible acceptance angles with high efficiency and, therefore, are the most appropriate for use in solar concentration. For very low concentrations, the wide acceptance angles of nonimaging optics avoid the need for active solar tracking. For medium and high concentrations, a wide acceptance angle can be seen as a measure of how tolerant the optic is to imperfections in the whole system. It is vital to start with a wide acceptance angle since it must be able to accommodate tracking errors, movements of the system due to wind, imperfectly manufactured optics, imperfectly assembled components, finite stiffness of the supporting structure or its deformation due to aging, among other factors. All of these reduce the initial acceptance angle and, after they are all factored in, the system must still be able to capture the finite angular aperture of sunlight.

Grid parity

Grid parity refers to the cost of solar/wind watt-hours produced compared to watt-hours available from the electrical utility grid. Grid parity is achieved when renewable energy watt-hours are monetarily equal to watt-hours produced on the grid (from coal, hydro, etc.).

Compared to conventional flat panel solar cells, CPV might be advantageous because the solar collector is less expensive than an equivalent area of solar cells. However CPV hardware (solar collector and tracker) is nearing US$1 per watt,[citation needed] whereas silicon flat panels that are commonly sold are now below $1 per watt (not including any associated power systems or installation charges).

Types

CPV systems are categorized according to the amount of their solar concentration, measured in "suns" (the square of the magnification).

Low concentration PV (LCPV)

An example of a Low Concentration PV Cell's surface, showing the glass lensing

Low concentration PV are systems with a solar concentration of 2–100 suns. For economic reasons, conventional or modified silicon solar cells are typically used, and, at these concentrations, the heat flux is low enough that the cells do not need to be actively cooled. There is now modeling and experimental evidence that standard solar modules do not need any modification, tracking or cooling if the concentration level is low and yet still have increased output of 35% or more. The laws of optics dictate that a solar collector with a low concentration ratio can have a high acceptance angle and thus in some instances does not require active solar tracking.

Medium concentration PV

From concentrations of 100 to 300 suns, the CPV systems require two-axes solar tracking and cooling (whether passive or active), which makes them more complex.

A 10×10 mm HCPV solar cell

High concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)

High concentration photovoltaics (HCPV) systems employ concentrating optics consisting of dish reflectors or fresnel lenses that concentrate sunlight to intensities of 1,000 suns or more. The solar cells require high-capacity heat sinks to prevent thermal destruction and to manage temperature related electrical performance and life expectancy losses. To further exacerbate the concentrated cooling design, the heat sink must be passive, otherwise the power required for active cooling will reduce the overall conversion efficiency and economy. Multi-junction solar cells are currently favored over single junction cells, as they are more efficient and have a lower temperature coefficient (less loss in efficiency with an increase in temperature). The efficiency of both cell types rises with increased concentration; multi-junction efficiency rises faster.[citation needed] Multi-junction solar cells, originally designed for non-concentrating PV on space-based satellites, have been re-designed due to the high-current density encountered with CPV (typically 8 A/cm2 at 500 suns). Though the cost of multi-junction solar cells is roughly 100 times that of conventional silicon cells of the same area, the small cell area employed makes the relative costs of cells in each system comparable and the system economics favor the multi-junction cells. Multi-junction cell efficiency has now reached 44% in production cells.

The 44% value given above is for a specific set of conditions known as "standard test conditions". These include a specific spectrum, an incident optical power of 850 W/m², and a cell temperature of 25 °C. In a concentrating system, the cell will typically operate under conditions of variable spectrum, lower optical power, and higher temperature. The optics needed to concentrate the light have limited efficiency themselves, in the range of 75–90%. Taking these factors into account, a solar module incorporating a 44% multi-junction cell might deliver a DC efficiency around 36%. Under similar conditions, a crystalline silicon module would deliver an efficiency of less than 18%.

When high concentration is needed (500–1000 times), as occurs in the case of high efficiency multi-junction solar cells, it is likely that it will be crucial for commercial success at the system level to achieve such concentration with a sufficient acceptance angle. This allows tolerance in mass production of all components, relaxes the module assembling and system installation, and decreasing the cost of structural elements. Since the main goal of CPV is to make solar energy inexpensive, there can be used only a few surfaces. Decreasing the number of elements and achieving high acceptance angle, can be relaxed optical and mechanical requirements, such as accuracy of the optical surfaces profiles, the module assembling, the installation, the supporting structure, etc. To this end, improvements in sunshape modelling at the system design stage may lead to higher system efficiencies.

Luminescent solar concentrators

A new emerging type of concentrators which are still at the research stage are Luminescent solar concentrators, they are composed of luminescent plates either totally impregnated by luminescent species or fluorescent thin films on transparent plates. They absorb solar light which is converted to fluorescence guided to plate edges where it emerges in a concentrated form. The concentration factor is directly proportional to the plate surface and inversely proportional to the plate edges. Such arrangement allows to use small amounts of solar cells as a result of concentration of fluorescent light. The fluorescent concentrator is able to concentrate both direct and diffuse light which is especially important on cloudy days. They also don't need expensive Solar trackers.

Installations

Concentrator photovoltaics technology has established its presence in the solar industry in the past few years. The first CPV power plant that exceeded 1 MW-level was commissioned in Spain in 2006. By the end of 2014, the fast-growing number CPV power plants around the world accounted for a total installed capacity of 330 MW.:5,10

Cumulative CPV Installations in MW by country by November 2014:12
Yearly Installed CPV Capacity in MW from 2002 to 2013.:10

List of large CPV systems

The largest CPV power plant currently in operation is of 80 MWp capacity located in Golmud, China, hosted by Suncore Photovoltaics.

Power station Capacity (MWp) Location Ref
Golmud 2 79.83 in Golmud/Qinghai province/China
Golmud 1 57.96 in Golmud/Qinghai province/China
Alamosa Solar Project 35.28 in Alamosa, Colorado/San Luis Valley/United States
Source: The CPV Consortium

Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal

Concentrator photovoltaics and thermal (CPVT), also sometimes called combined heat and power solar (CHAPS) or hybrid thermal CPV, is a cogeneration or micro cogeneration technology used in the field of concentrator photovoltaics that produces usable heat and electricity within the same system. CPVT at high concentrations of over 100 suns (HCPVT) utilizes similar components as HCPV, including dual-axis tracking and multi-junction photovoltaic cells. A fluid actively cools the integrated thermal–photovoltaic receiver, and simultaneously transports the collected heat.

Typically, one or more receivers and a heat exchanger operate within a closed thermal loop. To maintain efficient overall operation and avoid damage from thermal runaway, the demand for heat from the secondary side of the exchanger must be consistently high. Under such optimal operating conditions, collection efficiencies exceeding 70% (~35% electric, ~40% thermal for HCPVT) are anticipated. Net operating efficiencies may be substantially lower depending on how well a system is engineered to match the demands of the particular thermal application.

The maximum temperature of CPVT systems is typically too low alone to power a boiler for additional steam-based cogeneration of electricity. Such systems may be economical to power lower temperature applications having a constant high heat demand. The heat may be employed in district heating, water heating and air conditioning, desalination or process heat. For applications having lower or intermittent heat demand, a system may be augmented with a switchable heat dump to the external environment in order to maintain reliable electrical output and safeguard cell life, despite the resulting reduction in net operating efficiency.

HCPVT active cooling enables the use of much higher power thermal–photovoltaic receiver units, generating typically 1–100 kilowatts electric, as compared to HCPV systems that mostly rely upon passive cooling of single ~20W cells. Such high-power receivers utilize dense arrays of cells mounted on a high-efficiency heat sink. Minimizing the number of individual receiver units is a simplification that should ultimately yield improvement in overall system costs, manufacturability, maintainability/upgradeability, and reliability.[better source needed]

This 240 x 80 mm 1,000 suns CPV heat sink design thermal animation, was created using high resolution CFD analysis, and shows temperature contoured heat sink surface and flow trajectories as predicted.

Reliability Requirements

The maximum operating temperatures (Tmax cell) of CPVT systems are limited to less than approximately 100–125 °C on account of the intrinsic reliability limitation of their multi-junction PV cells. This contrasts to CSP and other CHP systems which may be designed to function at temperatures in excess of several hundred degrees. More specifically, the multi-junction photovoltaic cells are fabricated from a layering of thin-film III-V semiconductor materials having intrinsic lifetimes during CPV operation that rapidly decrease with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The system receiver must therefore provide for highly efficient and uniform cell cooling, where an ideal receiver would provide Tmax coolant ~ Tmax cell. In addition to material and design limitations in receiver heat-transfer performance, numerous extrinsic factors, such as the frequent system thermal cycling, further reduce the practical Tmax coolant compatible with long system life to below about 80 °C.

The higher capital costs, lesser standardization, and added engineering & operational complexities (in comparison to zero and low-concentration PV technologies) make demonstrations of system reliability and long-life performance critical challenges for the first generation of CPV and CPVT technologies. Performance certification testing standards (e.g. IEC 62108, UL 8703, IEC 62789, IEC 62670) include stress conditions that may be useful to uncover some predominantly infant and early life (<1–2 year) failure modes at the system, module, and sub-component levels. However, such standardized tests – as typically performed on only a small sampling of units – are generally incapable to evaluate comprehensive long-term (10 to 25 or more years) lifetimes for each unique CPVT system design and application under its broader range of actual operating conditions. Long-life performance of these complex systems is therefore assessed in the field, and is improved through aggressive product development cycles which are guided by the results of accelerated component/system aging, enhanced performance monitoring diagnostics, and failure analysis. Significant growth in the deployment of CPV and CPVT can be anticipated once the long-term performance and reliability concerns are better addressed to build confidence in system bankability.

Demonstration Projects

The economics of a mature CPVT industry is anticipated to be competitive, despite the large recent cost reductions and gradual efficiency improvements for conventional silicon PV (which can be installed alongside conventional CSP to provide for similar electrical+thermal generation capabilities). CPVT may currently be economical for niche markets having all of the following application characteristics:

  • high solar direct normal incidence (DNI)
  • tight space constraints for placement of a solar collector array
  • high and constant demand for low-temperature (<80 °C) heat
  • high cost of grid electricity
  • access to backup sources of power or cost-efficient storage (electrical and thermal)

Utilization of a power purchase agreement (PPA), government assistance programs, and innovative financing schemes are also helping potential manufacturers and users to mitigate the risks of early CPVT technology adoption.

CPVT equipment offerings ranging from low (LCPVT) to high (HCPVT) concentration are now being deployed by several startup ventures. As such, longer-term viability of the technical and/or business approach being pursued by any individual system provider is typically speculative. Notably, the minimum viable products of startups can vary widely in their attention to reliability engineering. Nevertheless, the following incomplete compilation is offered to assist with the identification of some early industry trends.

LCPVT systems at ~14x concentration using reflective trough concentrators, and receiver pipes clad with silicon cells having dense interconnects, have been assembled by Cogenra with a claimed 75% efficiency (~15-20% electric, 60% thermal). Several such systems are in operation for more than 5 years as of 2015, and similar systems are being produced by Absolicon and Idhelio at 10x and 50x concentration, respectively.

HCPVT offerings at over 700x concentration have more recently emerged, and may be classified into three power tiers. Third tier systems are distributed generators consisting of large arrays of ~20W single-cell receiver/collector units, similar to those previously pioneered by Amonix and SolFocus for HCPV. Second tier systems utilize localized dense-arrays of cells that produce 1-100 kW of electrical power output per receiver/generator unit. First tier systems exceed 100 kW of electrical output and are most aggressive in targeting the utility market.

Several HCPVT system providers are listed in the following table. Nearly all are early demonstration systems which have been in service for under 5 years as of 2015. Collected thermal power in all cases is roughly 1.5x the rated electrical power.

Provider Country Concentrator Type Unit Size in  kWe Ref
Generator Receiver
- Tier 1 -
Raygen Australia Large Heliostat Array 200 200
Sunfish United Kingdom Large Heliostat Array na na
- Tier 2 -
Renovalia Spain Large Dish 3 3
Zenith Solar/Suncore Israel/China Large Dish 4.5 2.25
Sun Oyster Germany Large Trough + Lens 4.7 2.35
Forbes Solar India/Germany Large Dish 7.5 3.75
Airlight Energy/dsolar Switzerland Large Dish 12 12
Southwest Solar United States Large Dish 20 20
Silex Solar Systems Australia Large Dish 35 35
- Tier 3 -
Brightleaf United States Small Dish Array 4 0.02
Silex Power Malta Small Dish Array 16 0.04
Solergy Italy/USA Small Lens Array 20 0.02

See also

References

  1. ^ 500x concentration ratio is claimed at Amonix website.
  2. ^ a b c http://www.iea.org (2014). "Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy" (PDF). IEA. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Fraunhofer ISE and NREL (January 2015). "Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology" (PDF). Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "Snapshot of Global PV 1992-2013" (PDF). http://www.iea-pvps.org/. International Energy Agency - Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.  External link in |website= (help)
  5. ^ a b c "Photovoltaics Report" (PDF). Fraunhofer ISE. 28 July 2014. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  6. ^ PV-insider.com How CPV trumps CSP in high DNI locations, 14 February 2012
  7. ^ a b Chaves, Julio (2015). Introduction to Nonimaging Optics, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1482206739. 
  8. ^ Roland Winston et al.,, Nonimaging Optics, Academic Press, 2004 ISBN 978-0127597515
  9. ^ Rob Andrews, Nabeil Alazzam, and Joshua M. Pearce, “Model of Loss Mechanisms for Low Optical Concentration on Solar Photovoltaic Arrays with Planar Reflectors”, 40th American Solar Energy Society National Solar Conference Proceedings, pp. 446-453 (2011).free and open access,
  10. ^ Andrews, Rob W.; Pollard, Andrew; Pearce, Joshua M., "Photovoltaic system performance enhancement with non-tracking planar concentrators: Experimental results and BDRF based modelling," Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013 IEEE 39th, pp.0229,0234, 16–21 June 2013. doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744136
  11. ^ Andrews, R.W.; Pollard, A.; Pearce, J.M., "Photovoltaic System Performance Enhancement With Nontracking Planar Concentrators: Experimental Results and Bidirectional Reflectance Function (BDRF)-Based Modeling," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 5(6), pp.1626-1635 (2015). DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2015.2478064 open access
  12. ^ a b S. Kurtz. "Opportunities and Challenges for Development of a Mature Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Industry" (PDF). www.nrel.gov. p. 5 (PDF: p. 8). Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  13. ^ A Strategic Research Agenda for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Technology Photovoltaic technology platform
  14. ^ Andrews, Rob W.; Pollard, Andrew; Pearce, Joshua M., "Photovoltaic system performance enhancement with non-tracking planar concentrators: Experimental results and BDRF based modelling," Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013 IEEE 39th, pp.0229,0234, 16–21 June 2013. doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744136
  15. ^ Cole, IR, Betts, TR, Gottschalg, R (2012), "Solar profiles and spectral modeling for CPV simulations", IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 2 (1): 62–67, doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2011.2177445, ISSN 2156-3381 
  16. ^ Eric Wesoff, "Soitec, SunPower and Suncore: The Last CPV Vendors Standing [1], 29 October 2014
  17. ^ http://cpvconsortium.org/projects/21
  18. ^ http://cpvconsortium.org/projects/20
  19. ^ http://cpvconsortium.org/projects/24
  20. ^ http://cpvconsortium.org/locations
  21. ^ "ADAM (Advanced Dense Array Module)". 
  22. ^ Igor Bazovsky, Chapter 18: Reliability Design Considerations. In: Reliability Theory and Practice, 1963 (reprinted 2004), Pages 176-185, ISBN 978-0486438672
  23. ^ Concentrated Photovoltaics Update 2014, GlobalData Market Research Report
  24. ^ "Cogenra, acquired in 2016 by Sunpower". 
  25. ^ "Absolicon Solar". 
  26. ^ "Idhelio". 
  27. ^ "RayGen". Retrieved September 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  28. ^ "Sunfish Solar". 
  29. ^ "Renovalia". 
  30. ^ "Zenith Solar Projects - Yavne". zenithsolar.com. 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Suncore". 
  32. ^ "Sun Oyster". 
  33. ^ "Forbes Solar". 
  34. ^ "Airlight Energy". 
  35. ^ "dsolar". 
  36. ^ "Gianluca Ambrosetti 2014 TED Talk". 
  37. ^ "Southwest Solar". 
  38. ^ "Solar Systems". 
  39. ^ "Solar Systems Dense Array Receiver". 
  40. ^ "Brightleaf Power". 
  41. ^ "Silex Power". 
  42. ^ "Solergy Cogen CPV". 

External links

Any Questions? Please give us a call: (949) 488-3207
Please let us know what your questions are, how we can help you. Remember, we are only a phone call away.

 

 
ABOUT ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA

Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov

CITIES OF ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA:

City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

 

 

"An honest answer is the sign of true friendship."

We receive many customers from across the world including people from the following cities:

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea, 92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629, East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610, Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677, Laguna Woods, 92637, Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861,Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

This Institution was Awarded
Best Value in Solar Energy

Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCABusinessDirectory.com


Solar Power Orange County
Call (949) 488-3207



Website: SolarPowerOrangeCountyCA.com

� 2013 Solar Power Orange County, 23632 Via Fabricante, Suite F, Suite D, Fullerton, California 92831


CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS ORANGE COUNTY, ORANGE COUNTY CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS, CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS SOLAR POWER ORANGE COUNTY CA, FREE SOLAR POWER, Residential Solar Power, Commercial Solar Power, Solar Power Systems, Mission Viejo, Orange County, Solar Power Systems Residential, Solar Energy, Free Solar Energy, Solar Power Systems For Homes, California Solar Systems, Zero Down Solar Systems, Solar Panel Installation, Solar Pannels, Buy Solar, Free Energy, Free Electricity, Alternative Energy, Solar, Panels, Power, Sun, Green Energy, CA

Solar Power, Solar Panels, Alternate Energy, System Monitoring

ZERO DOWN SOLAR POWER MADE EASY!
CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS ORANGE COUNTY CA
CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
ORANGE COUNTY